1992 - Friendship treaty with Soviet Union of 1948 declared null and void following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Finland turns increasingly towards the west.Tyskarna stannade ändå kvar i Finland ända till Tysklands kapitulation i november 1918. Under denna period blev Finland ekonomiskt och politiskt synnerligen beroende av tyskt bistånd.
Förhållandet till grannlandet Rådsryssland, senare Sovjetunionen, var inte heller särskilt bra strax efter inbördeskriget, även om de nya gränserna fastställdes år 1920 i freden i Dorpat och Finland fick Petsamo med en kust vid Ishavet.. After the OSCE refused to send observers Russia invited a group of observers from various European far-right political parties aligned with Putin, who started the referendum was conducted in a free and fair manner. Crimean Tatar leadership called to boycott the referendum. Russian President’s Human Rights Council data showed that 30%. And of these, only half voted for annexation – meaning only 15 percent of Crimean citizens voted for annexation. The fate of Crimea, therefore, was decided by the 15 percent of Crimeans, who voted in favor of unification with Russia. Bank of Finland 1918. 00170 Helsinki. Bank of Finland Museum31.1.-30.9.2018. The Finnish Civil War was fought from January to May 1918 between the forces of the Senate (i.e. the Finnish.. De röda veteranerna William Lindström, Ernst Vikstedt och Emil Kauppila berätta om sina upplevelser från inbördeskriget. The Finnish Civil War was a civil war in Finland in 1918 fought for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state
Knappt hade Finland blivit självständigt så bröt inbördeskriget ut. I kriget dog över en procent av Finlands dåvarande befolkning. Krigets sår tog lång tid att läka.What invasion is worse, US or Soviet? No invasion is good. Soviet invasions are more cunning, ruthless as they are to their own soldiers and citizens. The Soviet death toll in Afghanistan was secret, the returning veterans were silent and didn’t show on TV as Iraq veterans, same is now for Russians in Eastern Ukraine. There are no official funerals, no state support, mass media produce a distorted image of the Russian invasion in Ukraine and Syria. Invasion in denial is crucial and worse action. US invasions were almost always open and that is their “weakness” as it did not try to hide their actions and were ready to openly accept that they also made errors. Accepting an error in Russian politics is the weakness.The Finnish southern Viena Expeditionary Force was at first more successful. This group was led by Lieutenant Colonel Carl Wilhelm Malm and consisted of about 350 volunteers. By 10 Apri 1918l, Malm’s group had advanced as far as the coastal town of Kem on the White Sea. Malm was unable to capture the town and retreated to Uhtua where he began defending western White Sea Karelia.Samtidigt uppstod i Finland en annan lagtolkning, nämligen att i och med att kejsaren abdikerat kunde Finland gå sin egen väg och lämna Ryssland.
The situation of the Viena expedition began to deteriorate. The Karelian regiment stationed in Kem attacked the Finnish troops at Jyskyjärvi on 27 August. 18 men were lost. The next attack came against Luusalmi on 8 September when 42 Finns were killed. The following battles were fought at Kostamus and Vuokkiniemi in September-October. Soon Woods and his 4000-men strong “Irish Karelians” (Woods was of Northern Irish origin and the badge of the regiment, designed by Woods, consisting of a green shamrock on an orange field) were without question the strongest military force in the region, and the early hopes of Finnish nationalists were quickly fading away. Karelians were increasingly looking towards the Entente powers, especially Britain as the protector of their interests and the Finnish volunteer forces were unable to “rise the locals to revolt against their old Russian oppressors” as they had perhaps naively originally hoped. The Finnish Volunteer Forces had to offer little except nationalist propaganda, while the British provided bread and rifles to anyone willing to enlist to their service.Den 26 januari 1918 klockan 23 tändes en röd lykta i Arbetarföreningens hus på Broholmen i Helsingfors för att signalera att de rödas revolution i Finland hade inletts.Trots att många ville förtränga inbördeskriget var det flera författare som tog itu med traumat. Vissa av dem genast efter kriget. Bland dem fanns bland andra Jarl Hemmer, Runar Schildt och Elmer Diktonius.
Finland drogs med i de politiska konsekvenserna av första världskriget, såväl på grund av kriget i sig som på grund av revolutionerna i Ryssland 1917. De som stödde de röda trodde på en jämnare fördelning av kapitalet och en utväg ur arbetarens och torparens tunga liv och fattigdom. Den största delen av de röda bestod av städernas industriarbetare. Ingrian uprising leader George Elfvengren was active in anti-communist activities against the Soviet Union. He was part of a group which planned to assassinate Commissar Tšitšerinin of the USSR in Geneva in 1922, but the project failed. Elfvengren then worked as a businessman in Helsinki. Details of his subsequent life are not known other than the fact that for unknown reasons, he traveled to the Soviet Union in 1925, where he was arrested. He was executed in the USSR in 1927.Finland's president has a largely ceremonial role with fewer powers now than in previous decades, but can be an important shaper of public opinion.
Soviet Army did not take a direct part in the Chinese Civil war that resulted in communist victory. However, from early start Soviets provided weapons, supplies, and training. Chinese communists however made their military actions independently and the Mao Zedong Peoples Republic of China became second communist superpower. After Stalin’s death, China and Soviet became rivals to the point of armed conflict in 1969,C. G. E. Mannerheim blev ledare för de vita trupperna och jägarna som utbildats i tyska armén skeppades till Vasa, där de kunde ansluta sig till den vita sidan. http://licey.net/free/2-srazheniya__izmenivshie_hod_istorii/12-srazheniya__izmenivshie_hod_istorii__1945_2004/stages/1256-operaciya__kavkaz__sovetskie_letchiki_v_egipte_boevye_ispytaniya_novoi_sovetskoi_tehniki__mig_23_i_mig_25.html
Magnus Ilmjärv.Silent submission : formation of foreign policy of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania : period from mid-1920s to annexation in 1940. 2004Vi hör bland andra Frank Johansson, vars farfarsfar dog i ett fångläger för röda, och där traumat i släkten varit stort. Frank Johansson menar att man bör visa för omvärlden att krigshändelser bör och kan genomarbetas.Carl-Rudolf Gardberg är borgarson och gymnasist. Allan Wallenius är bibliotekarie, poet och socialist. De möts i Åbo 1917. Båda radikaliseras på var sitt håll och blir fiender i inbördeskriget 1918.De röda minns inbördeskriget. Varför var de med och till vilket pris? Lyssna på unika radiointervjuer på finska och läs om personernas bakgrund.So far Russia has managed to keep Al Assad in power and remove main threats to him, However, the situation is unclear. Daesh has lost most of its gains and will have to go back to guerrilla warfare. Russia has not made a choice for Kurdish forces that opposes Daesh and Turkey, Eventually, Al Assad may try to remove Kurdish Rojava autonomy and Russia will have to make a choice as Rojava independence would end Syrian unity. The Kurds in Iraq has begun the path to break up from Baghdad and this may come sooner than expected. It seems that Russia will have to keep its presence in Syria for years to come. So far the war is successful. In Afghanistan, the war was also stable for Soviets for many years. However, then events changed against their side. It can happen or not happen in Syria. The war in Syria is a costly venture and testing field for Russia for future military endeavors.
Samtidigt landsteg tyskarnas Östersjödivision i Lovisa och Hangö i Nyland med 12 000 soldater. Tyskarna gjorde ett anfall mot Helsingfors och intog staden. . Both countries came in alliance and Hungary gained territories from Poland, Yugoslavia, and Romania. Hungary contributed forces to Eastern Ukraine and faced grave casualties in Stalingrad front. In the spring of 1944 facing Soviet advance, Hungary started secret negotiations with Soviets and UK for an armistice. Hitler reacted by invading and occupying Hungary. Horthy was sent to house arrest and the new pro-Nazi government continued resistance resulting bloody Battle of Budapest and total annihilation by the Red Army. As of other countries, the Red Army and NKVD contributed to the creation of pro-Soviet dictatorship that became challenged in 1956 resulting second Soviet invasion.Bland de finska socialdemokraterna fanns de som ville uppnå mål genom politiska reformer och de som ville ta till radikalare former, det vill säga uppror. Mot slutet av år 1917 gick många socialdemokrater över på den radikala sidan. Bolsjevikerna stödde Finlands självständighet och gav signaler åt Finland att de stödde en finsk självständighetsförklaring. Kerenskijs regering ville hålla kvar Finland av försvarsorsaker, eftersom Ryssland var i krig med Tyskland.
Det går ändå inte att generalisera att en samhällsgrupp stödde den ena sidan och en annan samhällsgrupp den andra. USSR never conquered Finland. Actually, we conquered back some of the territories that were lost earlier, and advanced over The three Baltic states and Finland were all part of Russia before 1918 Många torpare och obesuttna från landsbygden ställde upp på de rödas sida, men på landsbygden var det ofta oklart vem som stred på vilken sida och vissa torpare kunde också strida på den vita sidan. The Crimea is occupied for nearly four years. During this time Russia has nationalized and looted the Ukrainian state and private property. It has made various arrests of pro-Ukrainian supporters and most crucially has made a crackdown on Crimean Tatar self-government the Mejlis. Large numbers of Crimean Tatars are arrested latest arrested is Crimean Tatar leader Ilmi Umerov. Crimean Tatars live in constant fears from a repeat of 1944 mass deportation to Central Asia. In first two years, Russia employed local Crimean collaborators who were hired during annexation. Since 2016 mainly the Interior sector, the law and order, and persecution has been replaced with people from Russia. A few of the most loyal and popular collaborators were rewarded with new posts in Moscow.
After USSR broke down the US invasions became more complicated. Since 1990 Gulf War the wars were conducted no longer on pro-soviet regimes. The enemies became terrorist regimes and dictatorships supporting them. While the US involvement in former Yugoslavia was a spoil of Cold War as Yugoslavia after 1945 was bound together by a pro-Soviet regime that however later distanced itself from Moscow. Also, 1993 Somalia was a Cold War spoil as Soviets also tried to gain pro-soviet regime there and failed. Then came Afghanistan. 2001 invasion while a justified response to September 11 attacks was a Cold War spoil. Soviet-Afghan war had devastated the country and Soviet defeat resulted in rising of Taliban regime that supported terrorist attacks on the USA. Iraq invasion of 2003 proved to be most controversial US invasion in its history of invasion. US government failed to prove the needs and means for this invasion to the international community and while there were justified means, and even some traces of Iraq feared WMD were found not insignificant quantity tough and posed no danger. The invasion resulted in large loss of lives, ongoing internal civil war and now Iraq is on the brink of breakup and invasion from Iran and Turkey. The Iraq invasion significantly hindered the trust for US foreign policy and military. And for Russia, it meant two things: a spike in oil prices could aid to improve their military and that a hidden invasion is better than open invasion.. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. By 9 November 1918, Wilhelm II had abdicated and Germany was declared a republic "Ett blodigt medborgarkrig" skriver Carl-Rudolf när kriget bryter ut. Men under månadernas lopp ändrar han sitt ordval. Birgitta Mariani-Cerati (Gustavs dotter) säger att hon är "dotter till en frihetskrigare, inte till en inbördeskrigare".
As per request, Ill start a personnel list of German Officers in Finland in 1918. As the whole thing is translated from finnish, some obscure ranks and units might be incorrectly translated or missing 1941-44 - The Continuation War: Conflict between Finland and the Soviet Union during the Second World War, which ended in an armistice and Finland having to pay reparations.
Också president Ståhlberg, som under sin presidentperiod varit försonlig mot före detta röda, skjutsades till den sovjetiska gränsen i oktober 1930. Detta fördömdes av de flesta i Finland. Ethiopia once was liberated by British forces from Italian occupation, in 1974 became Soviet client state as military junta known as Derg toppled Emperor Haile Selassie and received extended support from the Soviet Union and Cuba. Coup triggered a civil war and separatist movement in Eritrea. As Soviets always sent extended military support not only in form of weapons and supplies but also military advisers, agents, and commandos. War lasted till 1991 and resulted in the independence of Eritrea. Another episode during the war was Somalian invasion in Ethiopia in 1977. In the sixties, Somalia was friendly towards USSR and allowed its navy to use Berbera harbor. Now Soviets and Cubans amassed troops to rescue Ethiopia from collapse and loss of large territory. Worth to mention that Somalian military government hoped for Soviet support. Soviets contributed 1500 “military advisers” and Cuba had whole 18 thousand of them. Soviets officially lost 33 people, Cubans 400. In the end, Somalia was forced to withdraw from Ogaden region. Soviets and Cubans abandoned Ethiopia leaving the Horn of Africa into further disorder.
Olika väpnade styrkor började mobilisera sig. Det här gjordes både för att upprätthålla ordning och för att kunna ta makten ifall Ryssland kollapsade och Finland skulle förklara sig självständigt.After Israel occupied Jordan held West Bank and Egyptian Gaza Sector a new international problem the Palestinian terrorism occurred, The first generation of Palestinian terrorists were nationalist Marxists and as it is known the Palestinian Liberation Organization received support from KGB and Warsaw pact secret agencies. Various Palestinian terrorist organizations received weapons and support by KGB trough proxy using STASI. Polish intelligence and Romania. Leonid Brezhnev was clear in his words: “road of full liberation of all Arab lands occupied by Israel in 1967, of full and unambiguous respect for the lawful rights of the Arab people of Palestine”. PLO had its embassy in Moscow and its leader Yassir Arafat enjoyed Soviet protection. In 1991 Soviet Union ceased to exist and support for PLO was abandoned. PLO had to start peace talks with Israel. The Russian leadership has abandoned goal to destroy Israel, however, relations with them are at unease since Russian invasion in Syria. Israel has attacked Syrian regime targets that Russia supports multiple times. Russian air defense systems and air force were not able to stop the attacks nor they were allowed. Putin does not risk to enter open conflict with Israel, despite obligations to support the Assad’s Syria. But, accidents and incidents could happen that would change that.1809 - Finland is ceded to Russia by Sweden, which has dominated the country since the 1300s. The Finns retain a considerable amount of autonomy.
The chances of success for this trip were from the very small, while it was still well-known that Valkokaartilla there was hardly any reserves to ship to Karelia. These were all factors that contributed to yet a number of successive losses, which certainly decreased men’s mood. Defeat is not given, although many purnasivat and fled. This perseverance paid off when the bad Penalty kill U.S. Department Kuisma took the victory over the Murmansk Legion Vuokkinemi the end of the trip. This victory was an indication that Finnish men are like steel: it may bend, but not break. Winning the battle to force the enemy showed that the potential of the new rides are still, as long as the design is done with great care. The Finnish Civil War (1918) is a hidden tragedy. It is a fairly unknown conflict between communists (Reds) and anti-communists (Whites)..
Den vita armén hade avancerat från Österbotten och mellersta Finland norrifrån mot staden Tammerfors. In 2013 he was to sign EU association agreement and Moscow started to worry. In Ukrainian and Russian news media articles started to appear that Ukraine might terminate the Russian naval bases in Crimea when it signs the agreement with EU and then with NATO. Russian media started to warn of growing Ukrainian nationalism. In November 2013 after various meetings with Putin, Yanukovich in Vilnius summit canceled the signing of the EU agreement. As always all revolutions start when a small student protest is violently attacked by police. To Yanukovich and Putin’s nightmares, every police action to stop the new Maidan revolt only made it stronger. Putin was enraged by Yanukovich inability to stop the protests. He himself was stripped of any political and military actions as Sochi Winter Olympics happened at the same time and world was watching both Maidan and Olympics the games of peace in his own country. As Olympics draw to an end on February 18-19 the pro-regime police and unknown people opened sniper fire on protesters, some of whom have armed themselves. 100 people had died so far, streets were filled with barricades and Yanukovich government was in disarray. On February 21, Yanukovich decided to flee to Russia. He could not afford to stand trial for enormous corruption he and his government had created.Jägarna var bara ett par tusen till antalet, men bidrog med militärt kunnande och fungerade ofta som befälhavare eller underbefälhavare på den vita sidan. Finland (Q33). From Wikidata. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Also known as. English. Finland. sovereign state in Northern Europe
The Soviet and Chinese military buildup resulted in border conflict on March 2 1969 when Chinese forces attacked Soviet border guards on disputed Zhenbao island. The battle resulted in causalities on both sides. Soviets lost 58 soldiers while Chinese 29. On March 15 Soviets made counter-attack using tanks and artillery. A ferocious battle for many days was fought for the T-62 tank that was left stranded on the island and dead crew. Soviets frantically tried to recover and failed. Chinese Peoples Republic Army managed to move it to China and displayed at the military museum. China accused of Soviets provoking border conflict and attacking first and mounting an offensive against China. New border clashes emerged on Soviet-China western border and ended in stalemate. In 1991 Soviet Union handed over Zhebago island to China, In 2004 Vladimir Putin handed over China the Tarabov island and half of Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island in 2008 further border agreement were signed applying Chinese demands. Russia has never given such concessions to any other country while ruminating about changing borders in West. China is a deadly rival to Russia that is capable of ending Russian domination in the Far East and a large part of Siberia. In last 20 years, Chinese migrants have flooded in the Far East. Chinese constitution permits to use force to defend the interest of Chinese nation abroad.In Russia, the talk about Soviet war crimes is a blasphemy to Great Victory Cult that is sometimes greater than the Church and the God himself, In Germany, its often met in silence as Germans feel guilty for their own crimes and refuse to talk about atrocities to themselves. For instance, the famous German movie the Untergang about Fall of Berlin does not even mention Soviet rapes and shows that Hitler’s secretary Traudl Jung managed to escape Berlin unharmed. In reality, she was also raped. There is, however, movie Eine Frau in Berlin. När tsaren avsattes i Ryssland upphörde förryskningen i Finland. Då kunde lantdagen börja sammanträda på nytt efter en längre paus. Den tillfälliga regeringen gick med på det här, eftersom man visste att kejsarens förryskningspolitik inte varit populär i Finland.
In June 1940 Soviets gathered 50 000, troops with 8000 canons, 3000 tanks un 2600 airplanes. On June 8 combat alert was issued. Soviet radio forces were placed on alert waiting for attack signal. Leaflets were spread on border areas announcing that Soviet soldiers have come to defend Baltic States independence and free them from yoke of capitalists and barons. On the night of June 15 Soviet NKVD forces assaulted two Latvian border posts killing 3 border guards and 2 civilians including a small boy. 9 people were taken, hostage. These were the only shots by Latvian soldiers in defense of independence. Also, Latvian civilian Dmitrijs Maslovs was arrested by NKVD and accused of being Latvian spy and later executed. On June 16 Latvia received ultimatum. Soviets had done the same to Estonia and Lithuania was already occupied. Ulmanis asked German help to make corridor in Memel (Klaipēda) for Latvian government and army to evacuate to Germany. The plea was rejected. Seeing no other option Ulmanis agreed to an ultimatum. 90 000 Soviets troops entered Latvia.Command of the Battalion in Olonets Karelia was first taken by Gustaf Svinhufvud and thereafter by Talvela, at the middle of December 1921. By the end of December 1921, the Finnish volunteers and Karelian Forest Guerrillas had advanced to the Kiestinki Suomussalmi – Rukajärvi – Paatene – Porajärvi lines. Finnish support of the uprising with volunteers and humanitarian aid caused a chill in Finnish-Russian diplomatic relations. Leon Trotsky, the commander of the Red Army, announced that he was ready to march towards Helsinki and Soviet Russian troops would strike the East Karelian rebels with a 20,000 strong army via the Murmansk railway. Meanwhile, approximately 20,000 troops of the Red Army led by Alexander Sedyakin reached Karelia and mounted a counterattack. The Red Army also had Red Finns within its ranks. These Finns had emigrated to Soviet Russia after their defeat in the Finnish Civil War.Around this time, Gadolin resigned as overall Commander of the Expedition. The working relationship between Gadolin and von Hertzen was poor and the organisation not well defined, with the result that the forces on the ground suffered from and unclear chain of command. Mannerheim appointed Colonel Martti Sihvo as the new commander of the troops. Major von Hertzen was not quite satisfied with this, but he still got along better with Sihvo than with Gadolin. A new round of recruiting for 2000 new volunteers was also started at this time. Morten Jentoft har skrevet boka Finland 2018, en bok om den finske borgerkrigen og nordmennene som var vitne til den
Järnvägarna var av stor strategisk betydelse för de vita, eftersom trupperna kunde färdas fort längs järnvägarna. Mycket av kriget gick ut på att ha kontrollen över dessa. Sadly for those who don’t read Finnish, there is almost nothing available in English on this particular aspect of Finnish history. And while this is an Alternative History, I can assure you that everything about the Heimosodat in this and the following pages is historically accurate (with any mistakes largely due to my own flaws as a translator of Finnish source material). That said, the best source in Finnish that I have tracked down (other than fragments on various websites) is a Finnish-language book by Jussi Niinistö, Heimosotien historia 1918–1922″ (History of the Kinship Wars 1918-1922″). Finnish-language translation issues aside, this book contains a wonderful collection of photographs from the Heimosodat.The expeditions highest ranking officers were von Hertzen and Talvela, with 132 Officers overall, the majority of whom were from the infantry. Volunteers also included the famous Ostrobothnian infantry sergeant Antti Isotalo , who put together by himself his own company of internally displaced soldiers, as well as the Pohjan Pohjat (“Boys from the North”) veteran, infantry second lieutenant Erkki Hannula , who had put together a unit of Pohjan Pohjat veterans. The expedition crossed the border on the night of April 21, 1919. Von Hertzen remembers crossing the border like this:After the October 1917 Revolution, the Bolsheviks seized power violently in Russia, overthrowing the first democratically elected government of Russia. The Bolshevik coup was followed by four years of bitter civil war between the Bolsheviks and the “Whites.” The Western Powers dispatched intervention forces to Russia, at first to help keep Russia in the war against Germany, but later to support the White forces who were fighting against the Bolsheviks. The world political situation, the chaotic civil war in Russia and the undefined Finnish-Russian border all combined to create a situation which permitted the Kinship Wars to take place.A controversial listing as it may sound, as Ukrainian and Belarusian independent states did not exist during WW2 and were not permitted by German occupiers. Various instances of collaborator authorities and units existed within occupied Ukraine and Belarus. However, Nazi became warmer to independence demands in 1944 when the war in Eastern Front was lost and vague promises of autonomy did not boost any more victories. Instead of larger masses joined the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА UPA) that was both against Nazis and Soviets. The UPA emerged from Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists OUN that existed in Western Ukraine controlled by Poland. As its nationalist agenda was very much radical it was not radical enough for Stepan Bandera who created his splinter faction the OUN-B.
. Kriget ledde till olika politiska förändringar såsom revolutioner i de olika länderna. Också i Finland var åren 1914–1918 en tid av förändring.Socialdemokraterna hade majoritet i finska lantdagen och krävde mer autonomi för Finland och större rättigheter för arbetarna, torparna och de obesuttna fattiga på landsbygden.
De socialistiska "röda garden" stod snart i opposition till de borgerliga "vita" skyddskårerna. De röda gardena beväpnades med vapen från de ryska trupperna. Generallöjtnant C.G.E. Mannerheim tog kommandot över de vita skyddskårerna. Poland the main Russian rival for centuries was finally subdued to Russia in 1796. Various attempts of uprising took place. Polish duchy supported Napoleon but until 1918 November 11 Poland could not break free. What followed was a major Polish Independence war and Polish push to the east. Poland sought to restore Polish power over Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, while these countries wanted their own independence and Bolsheviks were pushing west. Polish armies clashed with Bolsheviks in Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, and Lithuania. In their tide of success Polish army in alliance with Ukrainian national forces, Poland captured Kyiv and moved east. As Bolsheviks defeated White Russian soldiers they had now massive forces free for an advance on Ukraine and Poland. In Spring of 1920 Bolsheviks started an offensive and chased Poles and Ukrainians from Kyiv and Belarus and on August 10 stood at the gates of Warsaw. Some historians consider the Battle of Warsaw as modern-day Battle of Vienna 1683 when Polish forces halted Ottoman advance to inner Europe. Here again, Polish army managed to stop Bolshevik advance in a major battle. Bolsheviks made no secret that after Warsaw they would advance to Berlin and beyond. Polish defeat would also endanger the Baltic peace agreements. In the end, Poland gained a large portion of Western Belarus and Ukraine and Eastern Lithuania. The peace treaty of Riga in 1921 also sealed the hopes for Belarus and Ukraine.
Torparlagen stiftades 1918, som gav en möjlighet åt torparna och den jordlösa landsbygdsbefolkningen att äga sin egen jordlott, Lex Kallio från 1922.I den här dokumentären av K J Lång, Johannes Salminen och Nils-Börje Stormbom berättar både fångar, anhöriga och experter om förhållandena i de finländska fånglägren.After the war, the East Prussia was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union. Pomerania and Silesia were added to Poland. In all former German territories the German population that remained after 1945 faced expulsion and ethnic cleansing and removal of property. The events between Germans and Soviets in 1944-1945 was a simple repetition of Medieval times when German Teutonic knights entered Pomerian and Baltic Prussian lands, forcefully baptized Slavic and Baltic tribes and assimilated them. Now after many centuries the tide went the opposite direction in the most brute way possible. Again this is the nature of war in its most pure essence.Jarl Hemmer tacklar i pjäsen "Ljuset i Gehenna" svåra frågor om tro och tvivel under inbördeskriget 1918. Radioteatern satte upp berättelsen som pjäs 1963.
Finland had special autonomy rights in Russian Empire. It was also used as a refuge by Bolsheviks in various cases from Tsarist repressions and Bolshevik supporters. The war in Finland in 1918 is called Civil War but it also involved Red Army, the German army, and volunteers from other nearby countries. A Large part of the Finish Bolsheviks were Russian army servicemen stationed there that became Bolsheviks. Stalin and Lenin urged the Finnish Bolsheviks to seize power in Finland. While Finnish nationalists received support from Germany. In December 6 1917 Finland declared independence and on early January the Whites and Reds have begun clashes. Red Army supported offensive took place in February and Reds seized control over Helsinki and much of Southern Finland. With help from German troops, Finnish national troops or Whites step by step pushed the Reds away to Karelia and reached the outskirts of Petrograd (St.Petersburg). The peace agreement between Reds and Whites and Soviet Russia was never signed, however Tartu treaty that set border between Finland and Soviet union on 1924 was is considered by some sources as peace agreement. Bolsheviks embattled in various front could not contribute force to Finland so until 1940 they had to cope with Finish border so close to Leningrad.Estonia serves as a placeholder to almost identical events in Latvia during 1939-1940. Soviets already started gathering troops along Latvian border in size exceeding Latvian armed forces in August 1939. 200 000 Red Army soldiers, tanks and aviation were gathered to counter 18 389 sized Latvian forces. In September 28 Estonia signed mutual assistance pact with the Soviet Union. Estonian foreign minister returned from Moscow trough Riga and did not bother to inform Latvian colleges. On October 5 Latvian foreign minister Vilhelms Munters was called to sign a similar agreement. Stalin made himself clear that in case of not signing the pact, Soviets will attack and occupy Latvia. Latvian authoritarian president Kārlis Ulmanis made himself clear: “Any military resistance to Russians is impossible. Our defense system from the very first days is based on two days of resistance until we receive support from League of Nations or friendly nations. Now there is no such hope. League of Nations is powerless. Poland is defeated, traffic to UK and France is halted. Estonia has already signed the agreement. There is no doubt we must sign it also”. 25 000 Soviet soldiers entered Latvia, As in Estonia the Ulmanis government remained in power until June 17 1940.During the Civil war in Ukraine, 1917-1920 was the first time when Bolsheviks came up with the idea of separate republics in Eastern Don basin. The purpose for this was to hinder Ukrainian Peoples Republic and Whiteguards. In 1918 a Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Republic was declared and later joined in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. During 1920s-1930s Donbas was subjected to various repressions and most crucially the artificial famine that greatly downsized the Ukrainian speaking population. The deceased were replaced by newcomers from Russia and Belarus. The industrialization of the region contributed to immigration for years ahead.
. Det mest neutrala, och det som används mest idag är just inbördeskriget.Fronten gick tvärs genom landet och de röda hade i början av kriget ett litet övertag. Båda sidor kunde under kriget ställa upp ca 70 000-80 000 soldater. Med utgångspunkt i Heikki Ylikangas bok "Tie Tampereelle" intervjuar Nils Torvalds här Ylikangas, Eino Jutikkala och Esko Nikkilä om inbördeskriget 1918 och finsk historieskrivning.Kuusinen gjorde en lång karriär i den nya staten Sovjetunionen som bildades år 1922 och Gylling hade också en ledande befattning i Sovjetkarelen och Manner var en av ledarna i det Finska kommunistiska partiet som grundades i Moskva år 1918.
Belarus is mainly known for its Soviet anti-nazi partisans. Yet there were also small groups of nationalist independence partisans. Belarusian Independence Party demanded independence from Nazi Germany and were repressed. Their leader Mikoła Abramčyk later worked with CIA. Those who were enlisted or joined German lead Belarusian formations were forced to hide in the woods and resist Soviets until the end. However, the Belarusian National movement was too weak to create a significant partisan resistance.The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has gone into a stalemate and can last this way for many years or even decades. Russia has options: opt for new major offensive as Ukrainian army and government are much stronger than Russia had anticipated. Such major war would be costly and could also end in bitter failure and so far it seems that Russian leadership and military is afraid of taking such step. Next option is using various political and intelligence options to affect Ukrainian government, Western governments and the opinion of the people across the world to accept the occupation of Crimea and East Ukraine. So far in Ukraine, this has failed. In US Russia placed bets on supporting Donald J Trump, however, this gamble has turned out to be a failure. Not only Russian heavy attempts on cyber warfare and lobbyism has been uncovered and caused a new wave of outrage towards Russia, the Trump politics has so far been hostile towards Putin.
1948 - Finland signs friendship treaty with the Soviet Union, and throughout Cold War pursues a policy of friendly neutrality towards Moscow.What followed was a cunning deceptive invasion in Poland, Baltic States, Romania, and Finland. However, Hitler was afraid of further Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe he wanted for himself as well he wanted the Soviet lands for his colonial desires. In 1941 the Soviet-Nazi alliance ended in German both preventive and offensive war. Stalin himself planed war with Nazi Germany as both preventive and offensive but was not ready to realize as of June 22 1941. The invasion placed USSR in a temporary block with Western countries from which it benefited greatly as of generous Land Lease program, while it was not as effective in weapon shipments, the allied help in food, ammunition, clothing was very significant that Soviet patriots wish to deny. The war cannot be won with T-34 tankman with an empty stomach and no clothing for his own.In late May, von Hertzen commanded 1,260 men (22 officers, 266 non-commissioned officers and 1,072 soldiers) and 948 tribal warriors. The numbers however, began to decline in late June, when the contracts with some of the men began to expire and not all wanted to renew their contracts. Talvella also had the same problem in the north, but he was able to replenish his strength with local volunteers, who were more willing to fight against the Reds.
Knappt hade Finland blivit självständigt så bröt inbördeskriget ut. Det finska inbördeskriget 1918 utkämpades mot bakgrunden av ryska tsarrikets sammanbrott, den ryska revolutionen och första.. During the civil war between Tajikistan post soviet leadership and various opposition groups among them Islamists, Russia took the active role in supporting the governmental side. Tajikistan with its border and Tajik presence in Afghanistan was in danger from Islamists who had taken power in the country. Russian goals were to prevent the rise of Islamist’s in former Central Asia and keep loyal post-Soviet leadership. War ended in 1997 and plans were achieved. Russia has kept its military presence in Central Asia. While it has kept closed eyes on various violations of the Russian rights in these countries, Russia does not mind minor nationalism pursued by the dictators from former Soviet elite, it has prevented the emergence of Islamism in these countries. On 1 March 1918, a Treaty between the socialist governments of Russia and Finland was signed in St Petersburg. Brigade of the first train that delivered bread in 1918 from Soviet Russia to Finland In 1939 Japan and the Soviet Union had signed a non-aggression pact. Japan despite German demands never breached this pact. However, Stalin had promised allies to eventually join Pacific campaign. He waited until the very latest moment when US had dropped a nuclear bomb on Hiroshima and on the day when the US destroyed Nagasaki, August 9 Soviets entered Manchuria or Japanese puppet state Manchukuo. The operation was planned in advance, however. The operation was swift and Manchuria was captured and Soviets also entered Korea. War was over by August 20. The Soviet Union had gained an important bridgehead to spread communism to China and Korea.Kārlis Ulmanis despite aware that country is in full control by Red army tried to cheer up its people by saying on the radio: “I shall remain in my place you remain in yours”. On June 20 a new government of Latvian collaborators was formed and lead by biologist Aleksandrs Kirhenšteins. Occupation was accompanied by staged demonstrations and even bloody riots. On June 21 the puppet government had announced the fall of the old order and promised to preserve Latvian independence and fulfill good relations with USSR. As same as in Estonia on 14-15 July “elections” with single Workers and Peasants list was made, alternative election list was suppressed. Results were announced internationally before they were known in Latvia. On July 21 the new “parliament” announced that Latvia must join the Soviet Union. In August 5 Latvia was annexed. Molotov announced that the Soviet Union had regained land that Western powers had taken away from them in 1919-1940.
Ryssland började dra tillbaka sina trupper från Finland, varmed den röda finska armén blev utan avgörande flankstöd från ryskt håll. The objectives of the Expeditionary Force were to capture Lodeynoye Pole, the town of Petrozavodsk and the Murmansk railroad. The 1,000 volunteer troops were divided into three groups. Von Hertzen, led the Southern Group, targeting the railway. The group advanced rapidly. Jaeger Lieutenant Isotalo’s group had a key role in the advance: He brought is company over the ice of Lake Ladoga, completing a 120 km movement in 14 hours, and then boldly occupied the village, Isotalo himself leading the attack. Isotalo was wounded in the attack but this did not stop him riding tens of kilometers back to the main body of troops, who were in Aunuksenkaupungin, which was occupied without a fight 23 April. Von Hertzen said the city’s conquest was thanks to Isotalo’s actions.
En provisorisk regering, ledd av Kerenskji, tog makten i Ryssland. Samtidigt hade arbetarna i Petrograd organiserat sig i en sovjet, det vill säga i ett arbetarråd, där bolsjevikerna hade stort stöd. In July 30 1970 Israeli Air Force came into direct battle against Soviet air force. Israeli Mirage III and F-4E Phantom engaged Mig-21 in three-minute air skirmish which resulted in 5 Soviet aircraft lost and four pilots lost. Israel only had one aircraft damaged. Russian sources describe more direct encounters that also resulted in the loss of Israeli aircraft and damage to Soviet anti-air weapons. Israeli Air force was unable to destroy all Soviet Air force group, but also the Soviets were unable to effectively counter the US and French-made aircraft.Men så bröt inbördeskriget ut. Munsalasocialisterna höll sig undan, men kunde inte helt undgå kränkningar från de vita. Några försökte fly till Sverige och andra gömde sig i skogarna.The next major failure was Mykolaiv where the republic was declared but died in the womb as pro-Ukrainian activists stormed the separatist camp before they could perform a strike. It turned out that despite voting for the pro-Moscow candidate, citizens in these regions were against of joining Russia. They simply supported the Russian speaking Ukrainian faction, not Russia itself. A thing Putin and his team could not understand. Then the next major problem that Russia could not pour in armed agents and combatants that far from the border. The takeover only worked in Crimea where the bases are and in Luhansk and Donetsk region where Russia could bring in combatants from Rostov region at a fast pace.
Den 6 december 1917 godkändes Finlands självständighetsdeklaration. Den här dagen blev vår självständighetsdag.A third force in the North was made up of 500 Finnish Jäger volunteers, led by Lieutenant Kurt Martti Wallenius, split into four 125-man companies. The objective of Wallenius’ men was to seek out and destroy the remnants of the Finnish Red Guards who were sheltering or in hiding across the eastern border.Det finska inbördeskriget 1918 utkämpades mot bakgrunden av ryska tsarrikets sammanbrott, den ryska revolutionen och första världskriget.
The war in Finland in 1918 is called Civil War but it also involved Red Army, the German army, and In December 6 1917 Finland declared independence and on early January the Whites and Reds have.. No Western country ever formally and legally accepted the occupation and annexation of the Baltic States. The Soviet advance into the Baltic States in 1944 was the second Soviet invasion. The Baltic States had no government in exile, they only had working diplomatic missions in US, UK, Spain and other countries. Sweden was the only country that formally recognized occupation despite a large amount of Baltic refugees in the country. For a short time, Australian labor government accepted occupation but was forced to withdraw such policy. Therefore the Baltic States continued to exist on paper in the same time of functional Soviet Socialist Republics. As in Ukraine and Poland in post-war years a significant anti-soviet partisan resistance occurred. The strongest was in Lithuania and also very noticeable in Latvia and also Estonia. CIA and SIS provided support, however failed as the affairs were uncovered by KGB. The NKVD and KGB carried out ruthless cleansing against Baltic partisans and eventually, in 1956 almost all resistance was crushed. The Kingdom of Finland (Finnish: Suomen kuningaskunta; Swedish: Konungariket Finland) was an abortive attempt to establish a monarchy in Finland following Finland's independence from Russia. In March 1918..
The Finnish volunteers suffered almost 400 dead. Most of the killed died either in battle or in field hospitals, either due to injuries or to lack of medical care and transportation difficulties. The wounded amounted to some 600 men.Although the expedition was supported by the State, the men themselves were all volunteers, almost all from the infantry or tribal activists.The main reason for the failure of the expedition was insufficient numbers of soldiers. Major von Hertzen expressed the public opinion that if the government had sent in the army to ensure the conquered territories were defended after they had been captured, they could have been kept. The reality however was that the government left the expeditionary force to fend for themselves, and thus, with insufficient men and no heavy weapons, they failed.Anna Bondestams roman Klyftan kom ut 1946. Det var en av de första böckerna om inbördeskriget ur ett barns perspektiv, och skildringen känns än idag mycket stark. I filmatiseringen av boken från 1973 möter vi 11-åriga Rut, vars pappa är en av de röda. 28 Jan 1918 Finland (name Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic was. used as polity name only in a Chairmen of the People's Delegation of Finland 28 Jan 1918 - 12? Apr 1918 Kullervo Akilles Manner.. During the Finnish Civil War, the Finnish “White” forces had already begun to prepare for intervention in the wider “Greater Finland” region, looking to utilize the collapse of the Russian state to fulfill the nationalist goal of unifying the “kindred nation” of Karelians with Finland itself. At the same time, the Finnish Senate wanted to avoid direct confrontation with the various factions of the Russian Civil War, and thus refused to send the official military across the border. However, the recruitment of volunteers was not prohibited, and the Government either turned a blind eye or supported the formation of various volunteer units composed of Civil War and Suojeluskunta (Civil Guard) veterans. These volunteer units soon marched eastwards filled with nationalist zeal. The Entente Powers were not amused. Where the Finnish nationalists saw the long-waited fulfillment of their nationalist dream of a Greater Finland, Britain and France saw the aggressive expansionism of a German puppet state into a strategically important territory (the port of Murmansk & the Murmansk Railway, over which large amounts of military aid were transported to the Russian military) of their former key ally whom they were doing their best to keep in the War.As of Yugoslavia, Albania was occupied and annexed by fascist Italy. Albania was liberated by Soviet-supported National Liberation Movement that established communist power in the country. Albanian regime was loyal to Stalin. but then became wary of Nikita Khrushchev’s new policy. As both states faded away from each other, Albania switched from Soviet client state to a Chinese one. In 1964 Albania left the Warsaw pact, however, was not punished by Leonid Brezhnev, Eventually, after Mao Zedong’s death, the persistent Albanian Stalinist dictatorship isolated itself from rest of the world. Times have changed and now Albania has contributed troops to Latvia in joint Baltic defense mission.
Robert E. Harkav. Great Power Competition for Overseas Bases: The Geopolitics of Access Diplomacy. 1982.The locals themselves were Karelians, a Finnic ethnic group that largely belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church. Karelian Finns had gradually developed their own separate distinct culture with Russian influences and some key differences to Finns in a similar way the South Slavic population of Balkans gradually separated from their common origins into Serbs, Croats and Bosnians. The 19th century ethnic nationalist Fennoman movement saw East Karelia as the ancient home of Finnic culture, “uncontaminated” by both Scandinavians and Slavs. In the sparsely populated East Karelian backwoods, mainly in Vienan Karelia, Elias Lönnrot collected the folk tales that ultimately would become Finland’s national epic, the Kalevala. Conversely, most Karelians saw the Finns as “Swedes”, with an alien religion (Lutheranism) and wanted very little to do with them.
In spite of its relatively small population, Finland has been a trendsetter in many fields since independence in 1917. Tyskarna hade ockuperat Estland och de vita väntade på en tysk hjälpkår som skulle landsättas i Finland.
I april 1918 utkämpades striderna i Tammerfors. Det var det största slaget i nordisk historia dittills, och de röda tvingades till reträtt.The Crimean Republic lasted only one day. On March 17 it ‘signed the Accession treaty with Russia. Putin signed the treaty on March 18 and gave a triumphant speech full of lies, accusations, and whataboutisms.It was a problem for Moscow ruler Putin who was caught off guard by 2004 Ukrainian protests that prevented his desired candidate Viktor Yanukovich from being elected. Putin could not understand the events in 2004 as he viewed Ukrainian society as his own Russian. However, Ukrainian society and politics are a constant struggle between various power factions while Russian politics are merited by the success of its autocratic ruler. So Putin saw Ukraine as the Western-orchestrated conspiracy against himself. He was afraid that the new pro-western coalition would join NATO and EU and Russia would lose its bases in Crimea and all influence. Putin also was afraid of example that Ukraine gave to Russians of how to obstruct vote rigging and corrupt power.Samhället var i flera år efter kriget delat i före detta röda och vita, eller i vinnare och förlorare.Despite his poor health in his later years may say otherwise, Leonid Brezhnev was most talented and successful Soviet leader since Stalin. However, great rulers make major mistakes and in case of Brezhnev, the major mistake was the invasion of Afghanistan. Afghan and Soviet relations were warm and Soviets in 1950’s-1970’s helped to build roads, dams, and infrastructure. On one hand, Soviets were friendly with nationalist prime minister Mohammed Daoud Khan who reformed the army according to Soviet army example. On the other hand, Soviets invested in creating pro-Soviet Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) funded by KGB. Daoud Khan was forced to resign in 1963 by the royal family. On 1973 Daoud Khan came back and deposed the King and started more independent policy angering the Soviets. In 1977 he went to Moscow where he was accused by Brezhnev that he seeks contacts with Soviet enemies the Saudis and Egyptians. Daoud Khan threw a fist on the table and shouted to Brezhnev that Afghans decide themselves who to talk to. Brezhnev was furious and started to look for ways of how to remove this new unfriendly regime. On April 27 1977 the PDPA started an uprising and with help of aviation of Soviet-supplied Mig-21 the Daoud Khan castle was taken and he and his family murdered. PDPA established power over the country. However, since the start, the party was divided into rival factions by ethnic means of many rivaling leaders.
I samband med strejker och uppror vägrade armén, kejsarens främsta stöd, att stödja kejsaren och att kväsa arbetarna. ... active during the Finnish Civil War as Commissar of Finance for the revolutionary "red" Finnish government. On 1 March 1918, a Treaty between the socialist governments of Russia and Finland was signed in St Petersburg. The Treaty was signed by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin from the Russian side and by Council of Peoples Representatives of Finland Edvard Gylling i.Vi hör intervjuer med några jägare. Författaren Harald Hornborg, hörde till de första studenter som värvades till jägarrörelsen. Bonden/bankdirektören Edward Berts från Kvevlax berättar om hur de blivande jägarna skidade över Kvarken. Inköpschef Emil Öist berättar om sin egen skidfärd och friherinnan Ruth Munck berättar om hur hon kom till fronten.Men ändå ansåg många vita att de röda var bolsjeviker och ryssar och betonade i sin propaganda att man skulle köra ut ”ryssen” från landet. Man diskuterar även orsakerna till kriget och till de rödas nederlag; kanske dålig utbildning, ingen disciplin och rysk inverkan samt den överlägsna motståndaren.
During Vietnam war, most support for communist North Vietnam came from the Soviet Union as in supplies, weapons, and training. Vietnamese fighter pilots were trained in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union sent military advisers and operatives to assist secretly in combat. Some sources say that 3 thousand Russian soldiers served secretly in Vietnam. Soviets were also involved in planning and aiding Vietnamese invasions in Laos and Cambodia. Soviet extended support to Vietnam later fully mirrored in US support to Afghanistan resistance fighters.Angola was another Soviet-Cuban joint military adventure. Portugal was the last European colonial power that reluctantly gave up its colonies. Angolan independence movement started in 1961 and had three main ideologically countered independence movements. Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Soviets supported MPLA. The US and South Africa invested in other two. After the death of Portugal dictator, António de Oliveira Salazar in 1970 his successors lost power in 1974 and Portugal became independent and gave up Angola. All three movements engaged in civil war. Cuba and the Soviet Union provided forces to support MPLA. 1,000 soviet troops and 35,000 – 37,000 Cuban troops were involved in the war also facing the South African army. Soviets lost 54 people while Cubans 2,016—5,00. Cubans withdrew in 1988 and Soviets in 1991. MPLA secured victory and its government is still thankful for Russia for their support.Den 29 mars 1918 ville ett antal unga vita kapa en stor rysk isbrytare som låg i Helsingfors hamn och föra den till Reval/Tallinn för att kunna transportera tyska trupper till Finland.
Meanwhile US had made its revenge against USSR for its aid for Vietnam guerrillas. But, the revenge had terrible side effect. Afghanistan fighters, large part of them foreign volunteers like Osama bin Laden from Saudi Arabia were radical Islamist’s who established their base in Afghanistan. The PDPA government was soon removed. The rise of Taliban Islamic regime lead to new war in 2001. This time it was NATO war. English: Flag of Finland, January-May 1918, replaced on May 25, 1918 with the current Blue Cross Hedwig in Washington. New version by Tcfc2349 Flag of Finland 1918 (state) fixed.svg: 21:28, 16 This is list containing concise detailed explanation of the invasion event, how it unfolded and why its considered invasion,Gylling och Manner dog under Stalins stora terror under 1930-talet. Kuusinen hade Stalins förtroende och ligger begravd i Kremls mur i Moskva.
The Kingdom of Finland (Finnish: Suomen kuningaskunta ; Swedish: Konungariket Finland ) was an abortive attempt to establish a monarchy in Finland following Finland's independence from Russia As it was claimed by Putin himself the Crimean invasion was planned years in advance. In case of new Ukrainian revolution, Russia had to be ready and act. While the triumphant Kyivan revolutionaries only started to grasp their victory, Russia initiated the takeover of Crimea. On 22–23 February, Russian President Vladimir Putin convened an all-night meeting with security services chiefs to discuss extrication of the deposed Ukrainian president, Viktor Yanukovych, and at the end of that meeting, Putin had remarked that “we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia.”Då hade ett par tusen finska män i smyg rest genom Sverige till Tyskland för att få militär utbildning och stridserfarenhet i tyska armén, för att senare kunna bidra till att lösgöra Finland från Ryssland vid ett lämpligt läge. White Finland's main leaders, Svinhufvud, Mannerheim, and Paasikivi, retired from public life in 1918 and 1919, but each of the three would later be recalled to serve as president at a crucial moment in..
It happened in 1918, just at the end of the First World War; Finland seceded from In October 1918, a German prince was chosen as king. He was Frederick Charles Louis Constantine, previously the.. The trip turned out to be stumbling blocks only a few factors: first, the Finns went from victory to victory, but the Murmansk path can be obtained from the cross. When the Finnish government decided not to send additional troops, the expedition was left completely to their own devices. This is a shame, because if the Finnish army was in full support of the Olonets gone, it would have been a release of a fully realistic goal.Storbritannien och USA väntade med att erkänna Finlands självständighet, eftersom de ville se hur situationen skulle utveckla sig i Ryssland. Deras godkännande dröjde tills att första världskriget tagit slut.In 1964 the Soviet leadership experienced peaceful changes and Khrushchev was replaced by more conservative Leonid Brezhnev who could be described best as moderate Stalinist. He was less eager for any reforms within the Soviet order and instead intended to keep status quo in his country and in relations with the West. Meanwhile, Czechoslovakia that after liberation from Nazis as all other countries occupied by Red Army became communist state made slow reforms lead by Antonín Novotný and in 1960’s experienced economic downturn spurring protests against communist rule. On January 5 1968 Alexander Dubček attained power in the communist party and started a wave of reforms known as Prague Spring. His reforms labeled “a socialism with a human face” made advancements in civil and political rights, freedom of the press and also give more autonomy to Slovakia.