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Typhus wikipedia

Scientists have proved typhus is transfered by various metals and only becomes active at high velocities. When signs of typhus are sited, it is strongly recommended to take caution and avoid.. Scrub typhus is endemic to a part of the world known as the tsutsugamushi triangle (after O. tsutsugamushi).[2] This extends from northern Japan and far-eastern Russia in the north, to the territories around the Solomon Sea into northern Australia in the south, and to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west.[5] It may also be endemic in parts of South America.[6] Signs and symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. More virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi can cause hemorrhaging and intravascular coagulation. Morbilliform rash, eschar, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathies are typical signs. Leukopenia and abnormal liver function tests are commonly seen in the early phase of the illness. Pneumonitis, encephalitis, and myocarditis occur in the late phase of illness. It has particularly been shown to be the most common cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in Bihar, India.[3]

Subclinical infection - Wikipedia

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The mortality rate is 10 percent to 60 percent, but is vastly lower if antibiotics such as tetracycline are used early. Infection can also be prevented via vaccination. The causes of typhus are small Gram-negative coccobacilli-shaped bacteria, members of the genus Rickettsia that are intracellular parasites of many animals and utilize the components within the cell to survive and multiply. Typhus is sometimes generally labeled as flea-borne typhus, tick-borne typhus, or louse-borne typhus, depending on the vector that transmits the bacteria. They are difficult to cultivate because they usually only grow within cells they infect. Occasionally, the bacteria may become dormant in infected cells, and years later, again begin to multiply (causing Brill-Zinsser disease). Generally, typhus follows an animal (rat, mouse) to vector (louse, flea) cycle. Humans are incidentally infected usually when the vectors come in close proximity to humans. The two Rickettsia species responsible for the two main types of typhus are Rickettsia prowazekii, the cause of epidemic typhus, and R. typhi, the cause of endemic typhus. However, R. felis, another species usually found in cat and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), has been linked to people with endemic typhus also. Epidemic typhus usually spreads to humans from body lice (Figure 1) feces contaminated with R. prowazekii or occasionally from animal droppings contaminated with these bacteria. Endemic typhus usually spreads to humans by flea feces or animal droppings containing R. typhi or R. felis. The flea or louse (Pediculus humanus) bite causes itching and scratching and may allow the bacteria to enter the scratch or bite area in the skin. Indirect person-to-person transmission of rickettsiae can occur if infected fleas or lice infect one person who develops the disease and then the infected lice or fleas move from person to person by direct contact or via shared clothing. In general, head lice that differ from body lice do not transmit Rickettsia.

Epidemic typhus - Wikipedia

The definition of fever is an elevation in body temperature or a high body temperature. Technically, any body temperature above the normal oral measurement of 98.6 Fahrenheit (37 Celsius) or the normal rectal temperature of 99 F (37.2 C) is considered elevated. However, these are averages, and one's normal body temperature may actually be 1 F (0.6 C) or more above or below the average of 98.6 F. Body temperature can also vary up to 1 F (0.6 C) throughout the day. Louse-borne [epidemic] typhus. epidemic louse-borne typhus. Epidemic louse-borne typhus fever due to Rickettsia prowazekii typhus - Translation to Spanish, pronunciation, and forum discussions. Typhus fever was often common in prisons due to crowded conditions and poor hygiene It affects females more than males in Korea, but not in Japan,[11] which may be because sex-differentiated cultural roles have women tending garden plots more often, thus being exposed to vegetation inhabited by chiggers. The incidence is increasing in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent and in northern areas around Darjeeling.[citation needed]

Brill-Zinsser disease

Warhammer 40k Death Guard Мортарион Typhus Wh Miniatures Длиннопост. Тифус. [моё] Warhammer 40k Typhus Death Guard Adeptus Astartes Wh Art Zum Inhalt Accesskey [1]. Zum Hauptmenü Accesskey [2]. Zur Suche Accesskey [4].. Der Typhus/Paratyphus ist eine Erkrankung, die durch Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi oder Paratyphi auf fäkal-oralem Wege übertragen wird. Die Krankheit kan

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Bu sayfada ingilizce Typhus türkçesi nedir Typhus ne demek Typhus ile ilgili cümleler türkçe çevirisi eş anlamlısı synonym Typhus hakkında bilgiler ingilizcesi Typhus anlamı tanımı türkçe sözlük anlamı.. Medical professionals base their diagnosis on the patient's clinical history, physical exam, and tests based on identification of the bacterial genus and species by PCR testing of a skin biopsy from skin rash or lesions, or blood samples. Immunohistological staining can identify the bacteria within infected tissue (skin tissue, usually). Typhus can also be diagnosed, usually late or after the disease has been treated with antibiotics, when significant titers of anti-rickettsial antibodies are detected by immunological techniques. Although some state labs may do these tests, health care professionals should contact the CDC for testing questions and be given information if there is an outbreak of epidemic typhus. These tests help distinguish between epidemic and endemic typhus, anthrax, and other viral diseases.Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some patients develop a rash, and the individual spots will develop crusty black scabs (Longe 2005). More virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi can cause hemorrhaging and intravascular coagulation. Serious complications include encephalitis, pneumonia, and swelling of the liver and spleen (Longe 2006). Untreated scrub typhus results in a death rate of about seven percent, but scrub typhus responds well to antibiotics (Longe 2006). Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Flea-borne typhus is a disease caused by Rickettsia typhi and possibly Rickettsia felis bacteria that Human cases of flea-borne typhus are reported worldwide, but mainly in tropical and coastal areas

Murine typhus - Wikipedia

  1. Typhus is not transmitted from person to person like a cold or the flu. There are three different types of typhus, and each type is caused by a different type of bacterium and transmitted by a different type of arthropod.
  2. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment yield an excellent prognosis for almost all patients with any of the types of typhus. Delayed, undiagnosed, or untreated typhus has a less promising prognosis, but the prognosis is related to the type. For example, untreated endemic typhus has a death rate under 2% of patients, but untreated epidemic typhus has a death rate that ranges from about 10%-60% of infected patients, with those over 60 years of age having the highest death rates. Even if the patient does not die, complications that may worsen the prognosis in endemic and epidemic typhus to fair or poor are renal insufficiency, pneumonia, and central nervous system problems.
  3. The first major step in the development of the vaccine was Charles Nicolle's 1909 discovery that lice were the vectors for epidemic typhus. This made it possible to isolate the bacteria causing the disease and develop a vaccine; he was awarded the 1928 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work. Nicolle attempted a vaccine but was not successful in making one that worked on a large enough scale (Gross 1996).
  4. Typhus is a bacterial disease spread by lice or fleas. Endemic typhus is uncommon in the United States. It is usually seen in areas where hygiene is poor, and the temperature is cold
  5. Scrub typhus, also known as bush typhus, is a disease caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi. Scrub typhus is spread to people through bites of infected chiggers (larval mites)

The u/Typhus2004 community on Reddit. [-] Typhus2004 0 points1 point2 points 1 day ago (0 children). Bah e. Gros je fais ma biblio et c'est chiant de devoir tout upload à chaque fin de session de.. The louse, flea, tick, or mite becomes a carrier of the bacteria when they feed on the blood of an infected person (epidemic typhus) or an infected rodent (any of the three typhus forms mentioned above). Serious and often fatal diseases such as typhus, tuberculosis, and cholera are caused by bacterial infections. Bacteria that kill their hosts end up inadvertently providing nutrients for other bacteria.. Henrique da Rocha Lima in 1916 then proved that the bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii was the agent responsible for typhus; he named bacteria after H. T. Ricketts and Stanislaus von Prowazek, two zoologists who died investigating a typhus epidemic in a prison camp in 1915. Once these crucial facts were recognized, Rudolf Weigl in 1930 was able to fashion a practical and effective vaccine production method by grinding up the guts of infected lice that had been drinking blood. It was, however, very dangerous to produce, and carried a high likelihood of infection to those who were working on it.

Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users. < back Rich Minimal Serif Sans Justify Text Get Wikiwand Note: preferences and languages are saved separately in https mode {{::langAbbreviation}} {{::lang.langAbberviation}}{{::lang.NameEnglish}} {{::lang.articleTitle}} ∙∙∙68 other languages Language preferences Read On Wikipedia Edit History Talk Page Print Download PDF {{::$root.activation.text}} {{::$root.activation.toolbarText}} Typhus Connected to: {{::readMoreArticle.title}} From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia {{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}} This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit). Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Cover photo is available under {{::mainImage.info.license.name || 'Unknown'}} license. Cover photo is available under {{::mainImage.info.license.name || 'Unknown'}} license. Credit: (see original file). Enjoying Wikiwand? Give good old Wikipedia a great new look: {{::$root.activation.text}} Enjoying Wikiwand? {{::$root.activation.text}} Tell your friends about Wikiwand! Gmail Facebook Twitter Link Enjoying Wikiwand? Give good old Wikipedia a great new look: {{::$root.activation.text}} Home About Us Press Site Map Terms Of Service Privacy Policy Typhus Introduction Signs and symptoms Causes Prevention Treatment Epidemiology History Middle Ages Jail fever Early modern epidemics 19th century 20th century 21st century References External links {{current.index+1}} of {{items.length}} Date: {{current.info.dateOriginal || 'Unknown'}} Date: {{(current.info.date | date:'mediumDate') || 'Unknown'}} Credit: Uploaded by: {{current.info.uploadUser}} on {{current.info.uploadDate | date:'mediumDate'}} License: {{current.info.license.usageTerms || current.info.license.name || current.info.license.detected || 'Unknown'}} License: {{current.info.license.usageTerms || current.info.license.name || current.info.license.detected || 'Unknown'}} View file on Wikipedia Suggest as cover photo Would you like to suggest this photo as the cover photo for this article? Interestingly, typhus was a huge killer of German soldiers, particularly on the Russian front, where they would scavenge cold-weather gear from the bodies of dead Russian soldiers who had had typhus.. The four main types of typhus are epidemic typhus (caused by Rickettsia prowazekii via lice), Brill-Zinsser disease (reactivation of earlier infection with epidemic typhus), endemic typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi via fleas), and scrub typhus (classically caused by Rickesttsia tsutsugamushi via mites or chiggers, but the causal agent generally has been reclassified as Orientia tsutsugamushi) (Longe 2006). These diseases are somewhat similar, but differ in severity, as well as the insect vector and bacterial species (Longe 2006). Other diseases caused by bacteria in the genus Rickesttsia include Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R. rickettsii) and rickettsialpox (R. akari). Untreated typhus can lead to serious complications, and it’s potentially fatal. It’s important to see your doctor if you suspect that you may have typhus.

Typhus is a flea-borne disease that affects thousands of people every year. It is often found in the colder mountainous regions of Africa, South America and Asia. Like typhoid, it most commonly occurs.. Typhus ist eine Infektionskrankheit, die durch Salmonellen ausgelöst wird. Lesen sie alles zu Symptomen und Therapie - und wann eine Impfung sinnvoll ist Typhus refers to a group of infectious diseases that are caused by rickettsial organisms and that result in an acute febrile illness. Arthropod vectors transmit the etiologic agents to humans Typhus on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, Sports, Science and more, Sign up and share your playlists The body lice that cause typhus are more common in crowded, dirty environments. Epidemic typhus hits hardest during times of war and privation, when large numbers of individuals may be crowded together. For example, typhus killed many thousands of prisoners in Nazi Germany concentration camps during World War II. The abysmally low standards of hygiene enforced in camps such as Theresienstadt and Bergen-Belsen created conditions where diseases such as typhus flourished. A possible modern scenario for typhus epidemics would be in refugee camps during a major famine or natural disaster. This form of typhus is known as "prison fever" or "ship fever" because it becomes prevalent in crowded conditions in prisons and aboard ships.

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A safer mass-production-ready method using egg yolks was developed by Herald R. Cox in 1938 (Mazal 2007). This vaccine was used heavily by 1943. Geni Project: Typhus. Not to be confused with Typhoid fever . For other uses, see Typhus (disambiguation) Alternative Names: Murine typh Typhus vaccines are vaccines developed to protect against typhus.[1] As of 2020 they are not commercially available.[2][3][4]

Scrub typhus - Wikipedia

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Scrub typhus, also called "chigger-borne typhus," is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are the larvae of harvest mites (genus Trombicula), which also are known as scrub mites and red mites. Chiggers are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. The mites deposit the bacteria when they feed on humans. This disease is common in the southwest Pacific, southeast Asia, and Japan, and is very common among people living in, or visiting, these areas, particularly during the wet season (Longe 2006). Typhus, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 2.9K likes. Typhus are Black Metal! Fuck Your God, Fuck Jesus Christ....FUCK YOU Symptoms vary slightly by the type of typhus, but there are symptoms that are associated with all three types of typhus, such as: Typhus fever occurs in colder (i.e. mountainous) regions of central and eastern Africa, central and South America, and Asia. In recent years, most outbreaks have taken place in Burundi, Ethiopia and..

Typhus vaccine - Wikipedia

Typhus — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI

Scrub typhus or bush typhus is a form of typhus caused by the intracellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative α-proteobacterium of family Rickettsiaceae first isolated and identified in 1930 in Japan.[1][2] -- Urut Berdasarkan -- Populer Judul Film Tanggal Upload IMDb Rating. -- Abjad Judul -- Abjad Judul (1) Abjad Judul . (3) Abjad Judul ( (1) Abjad Judul [ (4) Abjad Judul # (10) Abjad Judul + (2) Abjad.. The drug most commonly used is doxycycline or tetracycline, but chloramphenicol is an alternative. Strains that are resistant to doxycycline and chloramphenicol have been reported in northern Thailand.[24][25] Rifampicin[26] and azithromycin[27] are alternatives. Azithromycin is an alternative in children[28] and pregnant women with scrub typhus,[29][30][31] and when doxycycline resistance is suspected.[32] Ciprofloxacin cannot be used safely in pregnancy and is associated with stillbirths and miscarriage.[31][33] Combination therapy with doxycycline and rifampicin is not recommended due to possible antagonism.[34]

Define typhus. typhus synonyms, typhus pronunciation, typhus translation, English dictionary definition of typhus. n. Any of several forms of infectious disease caused by rickettsia.. Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers. Oriental tsutsugamushi Strain from Scrub Typhus in Australia' Idle intellectuals Albrecht, Octavia and Äls, are given to quoting and emulating their philosopher hero, Nietzsche. Albrecht later contracts typhus bringing the foster child gravely ill Äls out of an infected area

typhus - Wiktionar

  1. Endemic typhus, also called "flea-borne typhus," "murine typhus," and "rat flea typhus," is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia typhi, and is transmitted by the fleas that infest rats (TDSHS 2005). Less often, endemic typhus is caused by Rickettsia felis and transmitted by fleas carried by cats or possums. If a flea carrying the bacteria lands on a human and defecates as it feeds, the bacteria-laden feces may be scratched into the skin when the person scratches the itchy spot where the feed was feeding (Longe 2006). Endemic typhus is common in warm, coastal regions, with the largest numbers of cases in the United States found in southern Texas and southern California (Longe 2006). People usually recover without further complications, although the elderly, infirm, or those mistakenly treated with sulfa drugs may have a one percent death rate (Longe 2006).
  2. Deutsch-Englisch-Übersetzung für: typhus. Wörterbuch Englisch ↔ Deutsch: typhus. Übersetzung 1 - 23 von 23. Englisch » Nur in dieser Sprache suchen
  3. Typhus risk factors include living in or visiting areas where the disease is endemic. These include many port cities where rat populations are high, and areas where trash accumulates and hygiene may be low. Disaster zones, homeless camps, poverty-stricken areas, and other similar situations that allow rodents to come into close contact with people represent the greatest threats. These are the same type of conditions that lead to outbreaks of cholera, tuberculosis, and viral diseases like influenza. Spring and summer months are when fleas (and ticks) are most active, but infections can occur any time of the year.
  4. Band: Typhus Album: Typhus Year: 2015 Genre: Progressive Deathcore Country: United States (Las Vegas, Nevada) Quality: 320 kbps Typhus — Typhus (2015). 17 марта, 2015 | Author: Nomore13
  5. Typhus definition is - any of various bacterial diseases caused by rickettsias: such as. Recent Examples on the Web Gerhard estimated that the typhus epidemic affected around 250 of the..

Epidemic/louse-borne typhus

The arthropod vector of epidemic typhus flourishes under conditions of poor hygiene and crowded conditions, such as those found in prisons or refugee camps, among the homeless, or until the middle of the twentieth century, in armies in the field. Prior to the development of a vaccine during World War II, epidemic typhus was a devastating illness throughout history. An outbreak in England between 1557 and 1559 killed about 10 percent of the English population, and during Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812, more French soldiers died of typhus than were killed by the Russians. Being held in some crowded prisons was equivalent to a death sentence due to typhus. During World War I, an estimated three million deaths occurred in Russia and more in Poland and Romania, and thousands of prisoners held in the appalling conditions in Nazi concentration camps died of typhus during World War II. Efforts to prevent typhus have been successful when people are able to avoid contact with the vectors that spread typhus (mainly fleas and lice) or fecal droppings from rodents. In areas where endemic typhus exists, or in outbreaks of epidemic typhus, efforts to treat domestic animals to rid them of fleas are good preventive measures. Many experts suggest that good sanitation, flea-control measures, and reducing populations of rats, mice, and other animals that may carry the bacteria and their vectors is effective. Use insect repellents and insecticides (for example, 1% malathion or 1% permethrin) if fleas and lice reside in the local environment. If the problem is lice and boiling clothing is not an option, avoiding any physical contact with infested clothing for five days will allow the lice to die because they need a blood meal in less than five days to survive. Currently, there is no commercially available vaccine for endemic or epidemic typhus. The CDC does not recommend taking any antibiotics to prevent the disease.

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus, and murine typhus. Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash Other methods include culture and polymerase chain reaction, but these are not routinely available[19] and the results do not always correlate with serological testing,[20][21][22] and are affected by prior antibiotic treatment.[23] The currently available diagnostic methods have been summarised.[12] Typhus definition, an acute, infectious disease caused by several species of Rickettsia, transmitted by lice and fleas, and characterized by acute prostration, headache, and a peculiar eruption of reddish.. Интересное. Интересное. Интересное. Просмотр. Просмотр. Просмотр. Больше. Поиск (Badly done photoshop of the Typhus mini but his manreaper has been replaced with a selfie stick). Did you know that Anne Frank died from typhus contracted from a concentration camp

Typhus - New World Encyclopedi

From New Latin typhus, from Ancient Greek τῦφος (tûphos, fever, stupor), from τύφω (túphō, to smoke), from Proto-Indo-European *dhubh-, extended form of *dheu- (scatter like dust). IPA(key): /ˈtaɪfəs/ However, epidemic typhus symptoms, although initially similar to endemic typhus, become more severe. The rash may cover the entire body except the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. Patients may develop additional symptoms of bleeding into the skin (petechiae), delirium, stupor, hypotension, and shock, which can be life threatening. Typhus is a single model armed with a master-crafted manreaper, the Destroyer Hive and blight grenades. Typhus can attempt to manifest two psychic powers in each friendly Psychic phase, and..

Brill-Zinsser disease is a mild form of epidemic typhus, involving the reactivation of the earlier infection after a long period of latency (similar to the relationship between chickenpox and shingles). People are affected years after recovering completely from epidemic typhus (Longe 2006). This type of recurrence occurs in patients who have a weakening of their immune system, such as with illness, surgery, or aging, as the bacteria regains its hold. Brill-Zinsser disease tends to be extremely mild, resulting in a week-long fever and a light rash similar to that of the original illness; there is no threat of death (Longe 2006). Typhus TyphusClassification & external resources Rash caused by Epidemic typhus. Typhus is any one of several similar diseases caused by louse-borne bacteria

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Is it possible to succeed without any act of betrayal?. - Jean Renoir. Typhus, known as the Traveller, is a Chaos Lord of the Death Guard and the single most disgusting thing to permanently inhabit realspace in Warhammer 40,000 "Rickettsial (Spotted & Typhus Fevers) & Related Infections (Anaplasmosis & Ehrlichiosis)," Centers for Disease Control and PreventionIf you come in contact with these bacterium-carrying arthropods (for example, by sleeping on bed sheets infested with lice), you can become infected in a couple ways. The bacteria, in addition to being transmitted through your skin by their bites, can also be transmitted through their feces. If you scratch the skin over an area where lice or mites have been feeding, the bacteria in their feces can enter your bloodstream through the tiny wounds on your skin. typhus (Каталанский). Вики. El tifus és una malaltia d'origen infecciós causada per diverses rickèttsies. El nom prové del grec ''typhos'' (τῦφος), 'emboirat', que descriu l'estat mental dels afectats.. Typhus, series of acute infectious diseases that appear with a sudden onset of headache, chills epidemic typhus; Rickettsia prowazekiiColourized scanning electron micrograph of the bacterium..

Typhus: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosi

typhus translation english, French - English dictionary, meaning, see also 'typhon',typhoïde',typé',typique', example of use, definition, conjugation, Reverso dictionary The history of epidemic typhus. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4): PoH-0010-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec. The history of epidemic typhus An early attempt to create a scrub typhus vaccine occurred in the United Kingdom in 1937 (with the Wellcome Foundation infecting around 300,000 cotton rats in a classified project called "Operation Tyburn"), but the vaccine was not used.[36] The first known batch of scrub typhus vaccine actually used to inoculate human subjects was dispatched to India for use by Allied Land Forces, South-East Asia Command in June 1945. By December 1945, 268,000 cc had been dispatched.[37] The vaccine was produced at Wellcome's laboratory at Ely Grange, Frant, Sussex. An attempt to verify the efficacy of the vaccine by using a placebo group for comparison was vetoed by the military commanders, who objected to the experiment.[38]

Typhus Treatment, Symptoms, Prevention & Cause

Although the disease is similar in presentation to other forms of typhus, its pathogen is no longer included in genus Rickettsia with the typhus bacteria proper, but in Orientia. The disease is thus frequently classified separately from the other typhi. Typhus — Typhus: »Typhus« ist die in der Allgemeinsprache übliche Kurzbezeichnung für »Typhus abdominalis«, den medizinischen Namen einer mit schweren Bewusstseinsstörungen verbundenen.. Charles Nicolle: Eradicated typhus epidemics. Samuel Morse: The telegraph and Morse code. Jane Goodall: Major discoveries in chimpanzee behavior From New Latin typhus, from Ancient Greek τῦφος (tûphos, “fever, stupor”), from τύφω (túphō, “to smoke”), from Proto-Indo-European *dhubh-, extended form of *dheu- (“scatter like dust”).

Tifo murino – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

We found 44 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word TYPHUS: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where TYPHUS is defined. General (30 matching dictionaries) In order to keep Nazis away, a Polish doctor faked a typhus outbreak. This strategy staved 8,000 people. After the release of the 1996 film Scream, which involved an anonymous killer calling and.. typhus definition: 1. an infectious disease spread by lice (= small insects that live on the body) But he envisaged this as only a secondary preventive measure, believing that the typhus epidemic was..

Rickettsia — WikipédiaJosef Danhauser - Wikipedia

In America, a typhus epidemic killed the son of Franklin Pierce in Concord, New Hampshire in 1843 and struck in Philadelphia in 1837. Several epidemics occurred in Baltimore, Memphis, and Washington, DC between 1865 and 1873. Typhus fever was also a significant killer during the US Civil War, although typhoid fever was the more prevalent cause of US Civil War "camp fever." Typhoid is a completely different disease from typhus. Murine (Endemic) Typhus - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from Murine typhus is caused by Rickettsia typhi and R. felis, which are transmitted to humans by fleas; it.. Henrique da Rocha Lima, a Brazilian doctor, discovered the cause of epidemic typhus in 1916 while doing research on typhus in Germany. However, still over 3 million deaths were attributed to typhus during and after World War I. Delousing stations were frequently set up to try to reduce the rate of typhus infection and death among troops and civilians. Even though a typhus vaccine was developed before World War II, typhus epidemics continued, especially in German concentration camps during the Holocaust (Anne Frank died in a camp at age 15 from typhus). Eventually, DDT was used to kill lice at the end of World War II and only a few epidemics (Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Asia) have occurred since then. Because of toxicity, DDT has been banned in the U.S. since 1972.

Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation There is some confusion surrounding the term "typhus." Many people equate typhus with typhoid (typhoid fever), which is incorrect. There is confusion for multiple reasons. Both diseases have in common the symptom of high fever, and the major species of Rickettsia that causes endemic typhus is still termed "typhi." However, the causes, transmission, pathology, and treatment of these diseases are quite different. Salmonella species cause typhoid fever, and this is unrelated to Rickettsia. Additionally confusing is the term scrub typhus, which refers to a related but different disease caused by the cellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease is related to typhus and endemic to South America and some parts of Africa but is caused by a different genus and species of bacteria and is transmitted by a different vector (mites). The aim of this article is to inform the reader about the two major worldwide variations of typhus, endemic and the more severe epidemic typhus.

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Alternatively known as murine typhus, this type is caused by Rickettsia typhi and is carried by the rat flea or cat flea. Endemic typhus can be found worldwide. It may be found among people in close contact with rats. It isn’t commonly found in the United States, but cases have been reported in some areas, primarily Texas and southern California. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrique_da_Rocha_Lima ↑ [7] Waclaw Szybalski. Weigl's method of Intrarectal Inoculation of lice in production of typhus vaccine and experimental works with Rickettsia.. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: In endemic areas, diagnosis is generally made on clinical grounds alone. However, overshadowing of the diagnosis is quite often as the clinical symptoms overlap with other infectious diseases such as dengue fever, paratyphoid, and pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). If the eschar can be identified, it is quite diagnostic of scrub typhus, but this is very unreliable in the native population who have dark skin, and moreover, the site of eschar which is usually where the mite bites is often located in covered areas. Unless it is actively searched for, the eschar most likely would be missed. History of mite bite is often absent since the bite does not inflict pain and the mites are almost too small to be seen by the naked eye. Usually, scrub typhus is often labelled as PUO in remote endemic areas, since blood culture is often negative, yet it can be treated effectively with chloramphenicol. Where doubt exists, the diagnosis may be confirmed by a laboratory test such as serology. Again, this is often unavailable in most endemic areas, since the serological test involved is not included in the routine screening tests for PUO, especially in Burma (Myanmar).[citation needed] The highest rates are seen in the older adults and those who are malnourished. Children usually recover from typhus. People with underlying diseases (such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or chronic renal disorders) also have a higher risk of mortality. Mortality for epidemic typhus that goes untreated can range from 10 to 60 percent, and mortality from untreated scrub typhus can range up to 30 percent.

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus, and For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Typhus Endemic typhus seems to be increasing or perhaps is being recognized and correctly diagnosed more often in the U.S. An example is the following: Although endemic typhus is usually found in cooler environments, in 2011, Travis County, Texas, (including Austin, Texas) was declared to be endemic for murine (endemic) typhus with 53 cases diagnosed. California also has endemic typhus. In 2018, Galveston County, Texas, reported 17 individuals with the disease -- the first time it was diagnosed there was 2012. Authorities suggest many more people may be infected but have not been diagnosed.

Typhus Encyclopedia

  1. typhus. tyranid. tyranids
  2. Typhus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Typhus , also known as typhus fever , is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus , scrub typhus , and murine typhus
  3. Typhus is a contagious bacterial disease which passes from person to person using lice as a vector. Rats are the reservoir. Rats or lice transmits the organisms to people. Either through a bite or air borne. In some cases R thypi can be motile
  4. synonyms phrases analogical dictionary anagrams crosswords conjugation wikipedia Ebay. definition of Wikipedia. Advertizing ▼. synonyms - Typhus
  5. Was sind die für Typhus typischen Symptome? Die bei Typhus und Paratyphus auftretenden Symptome unterscheiden sich deutlich von anderen Salmonellenerkrankungen, obwohl auch sie..
  6. In February 1945, the Frank sisters died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen; their bodies were thrown into a mass grave. Several weeks later, on April 15, 1945, British forces liberated the camp

Typhus - WikiVisuall

Synonyms: epidemic typhus, rickettsaemia, louse-borne typhus, classical typhus, jail fever, recrudescent typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), scrub typhus, Shichito fever, Hatsuka fever Enormous antigenic variation in Orientia tsutsugamushi strains is now recognized,[39][40] and immunity to one strain does not confer immunity to another. Any scrub typhus vaccine should give protection to all the strains present locally, to give an acceptable level of protection. A vaccine developed for one locality may not be protective in another, because of antigenic variation. This complexity continues to hamper efforts to produce a viable vaccine.[41] Check out typhus's art on DeviantArt. Browse the user profile and get inspired. Experiment with DeviantArt's own digital drawing tools. typhus Définition. Les typhus sont un groupe de maladies infectieuses dues à des bactéries appelées rickettsies, donnant en particulier de la fièvre, des troubles neurologiques, une éruption 26. Aponeurosis musculi bicipitis brachii. 27. Mycosis intestinalis. 28. Typhus abdominalis morbus molestus est

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typhus - Wikidat

  1. Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users. Listen to this article Thanks for reporting this video!
  2. Many translated example sentences containing typhus - Russian-English dictionary and search Vector-borne disease such as dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus have emerged to be more..
  3. Scrub typhus is transmitted by some species of trombiculid mites ("chiggers", particularly Leptotrombidium deliense),[4] which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. The bite of this mite leaves a characteristic black eschar that is useful to the doctor for making the diagnosis.
  4. Murine typhus is a form of typhus transmitted by fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), usually on rats. (This is in contrast to epidemic typhus, which is usually transmitted by lice.
  5. Even in the absence of an available vaccine in some Third World countries, typhus is a largely preventable disease, with prevention tied to personal and social responsibility. Fundamental is avoidance of the arthropod vectors that carry the bacteria, and thus good hygiene, insect repellents, and control of rodent populations have proven effective. Socially, there is a responsibility to maintain hygienic conditions in confined areas, such as prisons, and to educate regarding the cause of typhus and how to avoid it. Just as DDT was instrumental in preventing larger epidemics in the chaos of post-war Europe after World War I, there is a social responsibility for those governments and individuals with means to assist those without means in the avoidance of the disease.
  6. The disease was also a problem for US troops stationed in Japan after WWII, and was variously known as "Shichitō fever" (by troops stationed in the Izu Seven Islands) or "Hatsuka fever" (Chiba prefecture).[47]

Typhus is a disease caused by bacteria. Fleas, ticks, and lice transmit these bacteria to humans. Get information about typhus causes, symptoms, history, treatment, diagnosis, prevention, and prognosis Endemic/murine typhus is rarely deadly, even without treatment. Death occurs in no more than 4 percent of cases, according to an article in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Typhus. Überschwemmungsassoziierte Infektionskrankheiten

One typhus vaccine consists of formaldehyde-inactivated Rickettsia prowazekii. Two doses are injected subcutaneously four weeks apart. Booster doses are required every six to twelve months. Typhus the name of any one of several similar diseases caused by particular bacteria in the Rickettsiaceae family and spread to humans by arthropod vectors (lice, fleas, mites, chiggers) from the endemic rodent hosts. Wikipedia-API is easy to use Python wrapper for Wikipedias' API. It supports extracting texts, sections, links, categories, translations, etc from Wikipedia. Documentation provides code snippets for the.. World War II provides some indicators that the disease is endemic to undeveloped areas in all of Oceania in the Pacific theater, although war records frequently lack definitive diagnoses, and many records of "high fever" evacuations were also likely to be other tropical illnesses. In the chapter entitled "The Green War", General MacArthur's biographer William Manchester identifies that the disease was one of a number of debilitating afflictions affecting both sides on New Guinea[45] in the running bloody Kokoda battles over extremely harsh terrains under intense hardships— fought during a six-month span[46] all along the Kokoda Track in 1942–43, and mentions that to be hospital-evacuated, Allied soldiers (who cycled forces) had to run a fever of 102 °F (39 °C), and that sickness casualties outnumbered weapons-inflicted casualties 5:1.[45] Similarly, the illness was a casualty producer in all the jungle fighting of the land battles of the New Guinea campaign and the Guadalcanal campaign. Where the Allies had bases, they could remove and cut back vegetation, or use DDT as a prophylaxis area barrier treatment, so mite- and tick-induced sickness rates in forces off the front lines were diminished.

The precise incidence of the disease is unknown, as diagnostic facilities are not available in much of its large native range, which spans vast regions of equatorial jungle to the subtropics. In rural Thailand and Laos, murine and scrub typhus account for around a quarter of all adults presenting to hospital with fever and negative blood cultures.[7][8] The incidence in Japan has fallen over the past few decades, probably due to land development driving decreasing exposure, and many prefectures report fewer than 50 cases per year.[9][10] If you suspect that you have typhus, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and your medical history. To help with the diagnosis, tell your doctor if you: This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Typhus. 00:01:21 1 Signs and symptoms 00:02:13 Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article) Hy.wikipedia has a high Google pagerank and bad results in terms of Yandex topical citation index. We found that Hy.wikipedia.org is poorly 'socialized' in respect to any social network

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They still need to insist on spraying mail as the Croatians did when Typhus spread everywhere. They invented quarantine, and anytime quarantines happen, all efforts should be taken to eliminate human.. Rickettsia species are carried as parasites by many ticks, fleas, and lice, and cause diseases such as typhus, rickettsialpox, Boutonneuse fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever in human beings. They have also been associated with a range of plant diseases. Like viruses, they grow only in living cells. The name rickettsia often is used for any member of the order Rickettsiales. They are thought to be the closest living relatives to bacteria that were the origin of the mitochondria organelle that exist in most eukaryotic cells. The symptoms of endemic typhuslast for 10 to 12 days and are very similar to the symptoms of epidemic typhus but are usually less severe. They include:Typhus is a disease caused by bacteria (mainly Rickettsia typhi or R. prowazekii). There are two major types of typhus: endemic (or murine typhus) and epidemic typhus -- bacterial infections cause both. The bacteria are small and very difficult to cultivate. Originally, they were thought to be viruses. The disease occurs after bacteria (Rickettsia) transfer to humans, usually by vectors such as fleas or lice that have acquired the bacteria from animals such as rats, cats, opossums, raccoons, and other animals. Endemic typhus (mainly caused by R. typhi) is also termed murine typhus and "jail fever." "Endemic typhus" also means that an area or region has an animal population (usually mice, rats, or squirrels) that has members of its population continually infected with R. typhi that through flea vectors can incidentally infect humans. Epidemic typhus (caused by R. prowazekii) is the more severe form of typhus. It has also been termed recrudescent or sporadic typhus. "Epidemic typhus" also means that a few animals, (usually rats) via lice vectors, can incidentally infect large numbers of humans quickly when certain environmental conditions are present (poor hygiene, crowded human living conditions) with the more pathogenic R. prowazekii. Epidemic typhus has a milder form termed Brill-Zinsser disease, which occurs when R. prowazekii bacteria reactivate in a person previously infected with epidemic typhus.

Murine typhus (also called endemic typhus) is a form of typhus transmitted by fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), usually on rats. (This is in contrast to epidemic typhus, which is usually transmitted by lice.) Murine typhus is an under-recognized entity, as it is often confused with viral illnesses «Om Typhus och Typhoidfeberns statistiska förhållanden och behandling» (1855); «Sällsyntare sjukdoms fall» (1856) и др. Труды Магнуса Гусса переведены на ряд европейских языков Over time, infectious diseases have been humanity's constant companion. We've visualized the history of pandemics, from the Antonine Plague to COVID-19..

Typhus. Quite the same Wikipedia. Typhus has been described since at least 1528.[7] The name comes from the Greek typhus (τύφος) meaning hazy, describing the state of mind of those.. Epidemics occurred throughout Europe from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, and occurred during the English Civil War, the Thirty Years' War, and the Napoleonic Wars. During Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812, more French soldiers died of typhus than were killed by the Russians. A major epidemic occurred in Ireland between 1816-19, and again in the late 1830s, and yet another major typhus epidemic occurred during the Great Irish Famine between 1846 and 1849. The Irish typhus spread to England, where it was sometimes called "Irish fever" and was noted for its virulence. It killed people of all social classes, since lice were endemic and inescapable, but it hit particularly hard in the lower or "unwashed" social strata.

Typhus - definition of typhus by The Free Dictionar

Kato died seven months later on OS 22 November 1907 from typhus. In 1919, Stalin married a second time. His wife, Nadezhda Sergeevna Alliluyeva, bore him two children; Vasily Iosifovich Stalin (1921).. In this article, we will be using the Wikipedia API to retrieve data from Wikipedia. Data scraping has seen a rapid surge owing to the increasing use of data analytics and machine learning tools During the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 B.C.E.), the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, which killed, among others, Pericles and his two elder sons. The plague returned twice more, in 429 B.C.E. and in the winter of 427/426 B.C.E. Epidemic typhus is one of the strongest candidates for the cause of this disease outbreak, supported by both medical and scholarly opinions (Gomme 1981). At a medical conference at the University of Maryland, Dr. David Durack, consulting professor of medicine at Duke University noted: "Epidemic typhus fever is the best explanation. It hits hardest in times of war and privation, it has about 20 percent mortality, it kills the victim after about seven days, and it sometimes causes a striking complication: gangrene of the tips of the fingers and toes. The Plague of Athens had all these features (UMMC 1999). FAQ. Contact. Typhus. Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Not to be confused with Typhoid fever. Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus.. Means of diagnosis include determining the reactions of the patient's antibodies to the presence of certain bacterial and viral markers. The infection is treated with antibiotics, such as tetracycline or chloramphenicol (Longe 2006). Intravenous fluids and oxygen may be needed to stabilize the patient.

The name "typhus" comes from the Greek typhos, meaning smoky or lazy, describing the state of mind of those affected with typhus. The Rickettsia species that cause typhus are endemic in rodent hosts, including mice and rats, and spread to humans through mites, fleas and body lice. typhus: 163 фразы в 7 тематиках The type of typhus you are infected with depends on what bit you. Arthropods are typically carriers of a typhus strain unique to their species.

typhus Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, & Facts Britannic

Add one or more comma-separated Wikipedia article titles: English Deutsch Français 日本語 Español Italiano Русский До атипових форм належать амбулаторна, абортивна, афебрильна, легка (typhus levissіmus), а також менінготиф, пневмотиф, нефротиф, колотиф тощо. Паратифи А і В за клінічним.. Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches are considered primary headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by disease. Headache symptoms vary with the headache type. Over-the-counter pain relievers provide short-term relief for most headaches. File:Epidemic typhus Burundi.jpg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. English: Rash in a man with epidemic typhus in Burundi. Date

Typhus (Typhus Fever) - Types, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention. Typhus, also known as typhus fever, are infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia.. ..of his deafness: While his quick temper, chronic diarrhea and deafness are consistent with arterial disease, a competing theory traces Beethoven's deafness to contracting typhus in the summer of 1796 9. UNICEF Facts: Common vaccines such as those against typhus and polio only cost around 1$/1€ or less than 1£ per vaccination, but still so many families around the world cannot afford this

Physicians recommend antibiotic therapy for both endemic and epidemic typhus infections because early treatment with antibiotics (for example, azithromycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol) can cure most people infected with the bacteria. Consultation with an infectious-disease expert is advised, especially if epidemic typhus or typhus in pregnant females is diagnosed. Delays in treatment may allow renal, lung, or nervous system problems to develop. Some patients, especially the elderly, may die.Use tick, mite, and insect repellant. Perform routine examinations for ticks, and wear protective clothing if you’re traveling near an area where there have been typhus outbreaks. Typhus Definition Several different illnesses are called typhus, all of them caused by one of the bacteria in the family Rickettsiae. Each illness occurs when the bacteria is passed to a human through.. Typhus. Buff. Spell Details

Typhus Wikipedia audio article - YouTub

Typhus the name of any one of several similar diseases caused by particular bacteria in the Rickettsiaceae family and spread to humans by arthropod vectors (lice, fleas, mites, chiggers) from the endemic rodent hosts This type is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and carried by the body louse, and possibly by ticks as well. It can be found around the world, including in the United States, but is typically found in areas of high population and poor sanitation, where conditions promote lice infestation. Wegen Typhus kam sie zunächst ins Gefängniskrankenhaus. Während des ersten Stutthof-Prozesses in Danzig soll sie angeblich ausgesagt haben: Ich war sehr klug und gerissen und für die Arbeit im.. wikipedia.set_lang(fr) >>> wikipedia.summary(Facebook, sentences=1) # Facebook est un service de réseautage social en ligne sur Internet permettant d'y publier des informations (photographies..

Typhus vaccines are vaccines developed to protect against typhus. As of 2020 they are not commercially available. One typhus vaccine consists of formaldehyde-inactivated Rickettsia prowazekii. Two doses are injected subcutaneously four weeks apart Without treatment, the disease is often fatal. Since the use of antibiotics, case fatalities have decreased from 4–40% to less than 2%. Murine typhus is a form of typhus transmitted by fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), usually on rats. (This is in contrast to epidemic typhus, which is usually transmitted by lice.) Murine typhus is an under-recognized entity, as it is often confused with viral illnesses

Epidemic Typhus: caused by louse-borne bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Gonorrhea: common sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Impetigo: superficial skin infection.. Scrub Typhus - a Re-Emerging Disease India Can No Longer Afford to Ignore Typhus is a disease caused by infection with one or more rickettsial bacteria. Fleas, mites (chiggers), lice, or ticks transmit it when they bite you. Fleas, mites, lice, and ticks are types of invertebrate animals known as arthropods. When arthropods carrying around rickettsial bacteria bite someone, they transmit thebacteria that causes typhus. Scratching the bite further opens the skin and allows the bacteria greater access to the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria continue to reproduce and grow. Typhus then spread throughout Europe. Typhus also was present in the Americas, although there is some controversy as to whether Spanish explorers brought the disease in the sixteenth century..

Early treatment with antibiotics is very effective, and relapses aren’t common if you take the full course of antibiotics. Delayed treatment and misdiagnosis can lead to a more severe case of typhus. Typhus vaccines are vaccines developed to protect against typhus. As of 2020 they are not commercially available. One typhus vaccine consists of formaldehyde-inactivated Rickettsia prowazekii. Two doses are injected subcutaneously four weeks apart Typhus was also common in prisons, where it was known as gaol fever or jail fever. Gaol fever often occurs when prisoners are frequently huddled together in dark, filthy rooms. Imprisonment until the next term of court was often equivalent to a death sentence. It was so infectious that prisoners brought before the court sometimes infected the court itself. Following the Assize held at Oxford in 1577, later deemed the Black Assize, over 300 died from epidemic typhus, including Sir Robert Bell Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. The outbreak that followed, between 1557 to 1559, killed about 10 percent of the English population. During the Lent Assize Court held at Taunton (1730) typhus caused the death of the Lord Chief Baron, as well as the High Sheriff, the sergeant, and hundreds of others. During a time when there were 241 capital offenses, more prisoners died from gaol fever than were put to death by all the public executioners in the realm. In 1759, an English authority estimated that each year a fourth of the prisoners had died from gaol fever (Smith 1967). In London, typhus frequently broke out among the ill-kept prisoners of Newgate Gaol and then moved into the general city population. Search for typhus at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. See typhus used in context: 3 definitions Typhus is the unpleasant work of bacteria called Rickettsia typhi (not to be confused with rickets The name typhus comes from a Greek word meaning hazy, because of patients with inflamed meninges..

Symptoms of endemic typhus develop within about one to two weeks after initial infection and may include a high fever (about 105 F), headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. A petechial rash on the chest and abdomen typically begins about four to seven days after the initial symptoms above develop, and the rash often spreads. Some patients may also have a cough and abdominal pain, joint pain, and back pain. Symptoms may last for about two weeks and, barring complications or death (less than 2% die), symptoms abate.During World War I, typhus caused three million deaths in Russia and more in Poland and Romania. De-lousing stations were established for troops on the Western front, but the disease ravaged the armies of the Eastern front, with over 150,000 dying in Serbia alone. Fatalities were generally between 10 to 40 percent of those infected, and the disease was a major cause of death for those nursing the sick. Some historians assert that the disease may serve as a model for the use of biological weapons while in the field. Between 1918 and 1922, typhus caused at least 3 million deaths out of 20–30 million cases. In Russia, after World War I, during a civil war between the White and Red armies, typhus killed three million, largely civilians. Even larger epidemics in the post-war chaos of Europe were only averted by the widespread use of the newly discovered DDT to kill the lice on millions of refugees and displaced persons. Meaning of TYPHUS. What does TYPHUS mean? Information and translations of TYPHUS in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web

Typhus oder Typhus abdominalis (auch Bauchtyphus, Unterleibstyphus, typhoides Fieber oder enterisches Fieber) ist eine systemische Infektionskrankheit, die durch das Bakterium Salmonella.. Online Courses for UPSC, K3, K10, K12, CBSE NCERT, ICSE, IIT-JEE & NEET available for e Learning | Online Learning for Competitive Exams Through SD Card & Tablets. Register here.. Following the development of a vaccine during World War II epidemics occur only in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Africa. The symptoms set in quickly, and are among the most severe of the typhus family. They include severe headache, a sustained high fever, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, chills, falling blood pressure, stupor, sensitivity to light, and delirium. A rash begins on the chest about five days after the fever appears, and spreads to the trunk and extremities but does not reach the palms and soles. A symptom common to all forms of typhus is a fever, which may reach 39°C (102°F). The most serious complications include swelling in the brain (encephalitis) or the heart muscle (Longe 2006). Without treatment, the disease can be fatal. The choice of laboratory test is not straightforward, and all currently available tests have their limitations.[12] The cheapest and most easily available serological test is the Weil-Felix test, but this is notoriously unreliable.[13] The gold standard is indirect immunofluorescence,[14] but the main limitation of this method is the availability of fluorescent microscopes, which are not often available in resource-poor settings where scrub typhus is endemic. Indirect immunoperoxidase, a modification of the standard IFA method, can be used with a light microscope,[15] and the results of these tests are comparable to those from IFA.[13][16] Rapid bedside kits have been described that produce a result within one hour, but the availability of these tests is severely limited by their cost.[13] Serological methods are most reliable when a four-fold rise in antibody titre is found. If the patient is from a nonendemic area, then diagnosis can be made from a single acute serum sample.[17] In patients from endemic areas, this is not possible because antibodies may be found in up to 18% of healthy individuals.[18]

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